All posts by Utpal Pande

About Utpal Pande

Utpal Pande is a graphic designer from India. His work has been featured in the NY Times, international magazines and journals. As a design speaker he has been invited to forums such as TEDx. He is also the editor-in-chief of VSUAL.

Skolar Devanagari: A Typographic Journey

Text typefaces are essential for serious typography. Yet there is an absence of such typefaces in most Indic scripts. And when it comes to typefaces that work well in multi-script environments, the scarcity is even more pronounced.

Skolar’s new complement aims to fill this gap for Devanagari – one of the major scripts of India. The foremost consideration was to create a design suited to Devanagari and its particularities, and not to uncritically borrow formal principles from one writing system to another. The objective was to create a versatile type family that would work smoothly for complex typographic purposes and yet remain distinctive and energetic in larger sizes.

[alert type=’info’] Skolar by David Březina is an award-winning text serif, originally designed with scholarly and multilingual publications in mind. Primarily intended as a robust, energetic text typeface, Skolar addresses the needs of serious typography. At the same time it furnishes the designer with the hallmark versatility of the family in display sizes, fitting the demands of corporate design.

The family supports over 165 languages using Latin, Cyrillic, Greek, and, most recently, Devanagari scripts. Coming next, Skolar Gujarati is in the final stages of development.

Skolar Devanagari, is the first from a series of Indian typefaces Rosetta Type Foundry plans to release in the next 12 months. The fonts support Sanskrit, Hindi, Marathi, Nepali, along with a wide range of regional languages that use the Devanagari script. [/alert]

The typeface was designed and engineered by two professional type designers, Vaibhav Singh and David Březina, both of whom have experience with designing for Indian writing systems. Importantly, they undertook substantial research in the historical developments and current situation of the Devanagari and Gujarati letterforms. Both have previously written dissertations on these subjects during their postgraduate studies.

The original brief for Skolar was adhered to, and the Devanagari complement also provides extensive support for scholarly and multi-lingual publications, covering a wide range of possibilities – complex Sanskrit can be set with it as readily as regional languages; contemporary mixed-language messages as harmoniously as academic treatises.

Skolar Devanagari also attempts to provide alternative solutions to the legacy of metal-type and its shortcomings. Limitations arising from the physical nature of metal-type made many compromised typographic practices prevalent. These are still carried on in digital fonts today although they are not relevant given the advanced OpenType capabilities. Skolar Devanagari presents a reevaluated attempt at a more well-considered solution with contextual substitutions and appropriate mark positioning.

Figure above: Mark positioning in various metal typesetting environments (top to bottom: handsetting, Monotype, Linotype).

Figure above: The logic of Anusvara placement in Skolar Devanagari: if the letter has ‘width’, i.e. has two strokes touching the headline, then the Anusvara is optically centred over the width of the letter.

The typeface provides an extensive range of conjuncts and adopts a rational approach to letter-combinations. It covers almost all meaningful bi-consonantal conjuncts and frequent tri-consonantal and quadri-consonantal conjuncts with a view to provide for the unexpected or novel combinations often encountered in scholarly texts as well as in day-to-day transliterated words.

All in all, the typeface has been optimized for more than 1500 basic syllables, which are either precomposed or built from half forms. These basic syllables can be further modified by means of matras (aka vowel marks) and other marks (reph, rakar, anusvara, nukta, candrabindu, …). All of the meaningful combinations are designed and engineered to avoid ungainly collisions.


The complex engineering work is an integral part of the design for most of the Indic scripts. Skolar Devanagari fonts were developed in the Adobe Font Development Kit for OpenType (AFDKO) instead of the more commonly used MS VOLT workflow. Skolar Devanagari is apparently the first Devanagari font built this way. Thanks to custom macros for syllabic analysis in FontLab and Glyphs the sheer amount of syllables and mark combinations could be tackled precisely. Using the new tools streamlined the whole process and allowed for rapid prototyping, systematic issue-tracking and prompt updates.


The authors would like to express their gratitude to Fiona Ross who taught both of them and commented on the design in the early stages, to Adobe Type team (namely Paul Hunt and Miguel Sousa) who provided impeccable support during the production in AFDKO, to Georg Seifert for help with some of the custom macros, and to Rosetta’s intern Ami Shah for careful testing of the beta fonts.

Skolar Devanagari won the first prize in the Indic text typeface category at Granshan 2012 competition.


David Březina is a Czech type designer and typographer, writer, lecturer, the impresario of TypeTalks, and co-founder of the Rosetta type foundry. He got Masters degrees in Informatics (Masaryk University, Brno) and Typeface Design (University of Reading, UK). From 2004 to 2007 he also ran his own design studio, with projects in graphic, web, and interface design. He has been working as an associate with Tiro Typeworks and giving various type workshops around Europe.

His interest in the world’s writing systems and multilingual typeface design and typography manifests in the award-winning type family Skolar. So far, he has designed typefaces for Cyrillic, Greek, Gujarati, Devanagari, and various extensions of Latin.

Vaibhav Singh is an independent typographer and type designer from India. He received a bachelor’s degree in Architecture from the University of Pune and a master’s in Visual Communication from IDC, IIT Bombay. He was a recipient of the Felix scholarship for the duration of his MA in Typeface Design at the University of Reading, from which he graduated with distinction in 2011.

He has worked as a typographer, graphic and exhibition designer in Bombay/Delhi and Panjim and is presently based in Reading, where in addition to developing typefaces, he has been researching aspects of the typography of Devanagari and its implications for print cultures in India.

VSUAL would like to thank David for sending in this article. Co-founded by him, José Scaglione and Veronika Burian, Rosetta, an independent foundry has a strong focus on multi-script typography. The foundry has been promoting research and knowledge in the field of typography and also ventures in world-scripts type design.

One of the main objectives of the foundry is to create a retail library of high-quality typefaces that are respectful of the traditions and cultural background behind each of the supported scripts. Rosetta actively promotes team-work and collaboration between designers, consultants and language specialists. To date we support pan-European Latin, Arabic, Greek and Cyrillic for Slavic languages as well as for many Asian languages. The addition of type families for Indian scripts will come soon.

You can find out more about the foundry and see their work here.

How much should I charge for a design project?

Students, freelancers, young designers and upcoming design studios face this dilemma quite often: how much should we quote to a client? Most of the times designers are clueless about how a particular design project should be billed. People often scour the internet to find answers and what they mostly stumble across are websites that claim spit & polish for 99 dollars or on the other hand they come across case studies where agencies made millions redesigning something. That doesn’t give a very clear picture, does it?

If you try asking a designer directly, say on facebook, “How much do you charge awesome sir for the fabulous work you do?”, chances are you wouldn’t get a straight answer. Nobody wants to spill the beans so easily and also, there cannot be a straight answer to such a question. You see every design project is different and there is nothing like a simple identity design project, if you ask me.

I started freelancing while I was in college. It was around 2004 that I began designing logos. I was also, clueless about how much a logo should cost or much I could make doing a brochure. However, for me there was a higher interest, if I dare say now, I was then, still practicing the craft and honing my skills. It was more like a paid learning exercise for me. It worked for my clients as well—they didn’t want to spend a lot of money getting a logo made and I could also keep my conscience clean as I knew I wasn’t overcharging for what I delivered that time. Still, I had figured out a crude method of deciding the charge. Sometimes I would see how much time and involvement was required on my part and at other times when I was doing a logo for a restaurant, I would just go through their menu and see how much a tripple chocolate sundae costs there.

During the next 8 years I did many more projects and now I was dealing with a larger variety of clients — from real estate developers to venture capitalists, from educationists to medical equipment manufacturers. Reading a menu wouldn’t work now so I devised a method of calculating a fair price for my work. As I said earlier, every project is unique so this isn’t certainly a formula but I sincerely hope that it can be put to use by those who every now and then find them in a situation where they don’t know how much should they charge for their new project. So here it goes, the simple guide to an honest invoice:

  1. Experience counts: yes it does, if you’re still in college, you certainly cannot charge as much as a full time designer would, who has been sweating his grey matter for the past 10 years. So rule number one—the more experience and the more projects you have under your belt, the more you can ask for. However, the kind of projects also matter. A brochure design for your favorite Aunt’s boutique doesn’t equal a brochure design for an airlines. But then how much can you charge? Read along…
  2. Involvement matters: how much of your time will the project take up? Is it going to be a weekend job or will it require constant participation for the next two months. Obviously as a student you wouldn’t take up projects that require a full time commitment, however, as a freelancer or a new studio you might be getting into one. If that is the case please read the following points carefully;
  3. What am I worth: No this isn’t a spiritual question; what I am referring is to your market value. No offense here, but you have to decide what you’re worth. Say, if you were to take up a job now, what would you be honestly getting paid as a salary? If that’s something difficult to determine then take a look at your qualifications + experience and head over to a job site. Say if you hold a diploma from a design school and have been freelancing for 3 years, look up any job site and see how much they are willing to pay to such candidates. Now suppose with your qualifications and experience, the best offer you could get is of Rs. 45,000 a month, then that’s your current worth in the job market. In other words, if somebody is employing you for a full month, you at least expect to be remunerated that amount. We can also call this your minimum price or the lowest bid you’ll ever make.
  4. How much time will it take: Now moving on, say you finally got that project to do a logo for ‘Happy Tummy Ice Cream’ or you got a deal to do a set of 20 illustrations for the book ‘Why Little Kids Are Afraid of The Dark’. You have to do a time estimation for yourself and also for the client. For the logo, suppose the client is looking for 5 options and then he’ll be picking out three from which you’ll both finalize one brilliant logo. Say you’ve got a knack for drawing logos, even then you’ll be churning out options at a certain rate and let’s say that rate is a logo in 3 days so for 5 options you’ll take at least 15 days, then say refining the logo would take another week and then there will be feedback from the client and time lost in convincing him what the best logo out of the lot is, let’s add another week for all of this. So now we know you’ll take 15 days + 7 days + 7 days = almost a month to do the logo with 5 options. Now you already know your net worth is Rs. 45,000 a month so you could pretty easily say that you’ll charge Rs. 45,000 for the logo. For the set of 20 illustrations: let’s say you take 2 days to do an illustration so 20 illustrations should take 40 days. There will also be feedback from the client so add another 20 days for that. So it means you’ll take 2 months for the project. But, you’re also doing a book cover and another website along with this project. Say for the website you’re getting Rs. 15,000 and for the book cover you’re getting paid Rs. 20,000 so you’re already making 35,000 for the first month. So for the fist month your deficit is Rs. 45,000 – Rs 35,000 = Rs. 10,000 and for the next month you’ll be completely focusing on the illustrations so you expect a full remuneration of Rs. 45,000. Therefore, you would now quote Rs. 10,000 + Rs. 45,000 = Rs. 55,000 for the project and not Rs. 90,000. If you were working on only this project full time, you’ll certainly finish it early. Stil this is a rough approximation. If you have a pretty good client aka a rich mogul then you could charge more but bear in mind that most distinguished clients wouldn’t have approached you (a freelancer or a student) if they wanted something done.
  5. Market situation: We all know that warm beer is pretty bad, you know what else sucks? The economy or so people have been saying or using that as an excuse. Still, this is something you might want to consider. Say you’re working for the hospitality industry and your client runs a hotel and you really know that hotels in West Virginia have had a lean season, then in such a situation you’ll have to be considerate. A hotel wouldn’t be making as much money in West Virginia as one would make in Las Vegas and if the hotels is listed in you know what to expect. In such a case I would suggest you stick close to your minimum price as discussed in point number 3.
  6. Aftermath: So a logo is a one time process, right? Wrong… in most projects the client will expect you to provide some sort of after sales service. You might get a call some day and the client may complain that he’s not able to get this thing printed on a high gloss plastic coated card. So you’ll have to take out time, maybe a day and explain to him that this logo isn’t supposed to be printed on a plastic coated card and that hand made paper might work better. This will take time and your involvement. So if you’re apprehensive about providing customer support to your client, then do add this on your bill so you’re not frustrated later. Now your monthly asking rate is Rs. 45,000 so your daily wage is Rs. 1,500. If you think the client may pester you for a week after you do the logo, then instead of charging Rs. 45,000 you should quote Rs. 45,000 + (Rs. 1,500 x 7) = Rs. 55,500 and you’ll be providing service + support with a broad smile.
  7. Where are you from: Say you’re from India and have just read an article on AIGA that says graphic designers make US$5,000 a day. Sounds ridiculous right? So should you charge that much? Yes & No. ‘Yes’ only when you are one of those designers AIGA is talking about and ‘No’ in most cases. US economy is different. A pizza costs much less here than it would in US so you’ve got to set your price accordingly.

I guess 7 is a good number for any list. Makes it look profound, like the ‘7 Spiritual Laws’ or something like that. Once again I’ll like to point out that this is not a formula but can certainly help you in asking a fair price for your work. Sending your client a good quote is important. If you get greedy and ask for a lot, you might end up losing the project… if you’re too unaware of how market works and in your humility and shyness ask for a price too low, you end up being exploited. Design is an honest profession or at least should be one and my only suggestion for students / young professionals is that put in your 100 percent, grow with each project and don’t hesitate to ask for what your work is worth. I hope this article was useful. You can post your feedback in comments below.

A Dragon is caught up in the hustle & bustle of daily life. Office commuters seem to have forgotten this mighty beast completely. The creature that was once a legend has now been literally diminished to street level and people just don’t care as they roll over him in their little cars. No one can see that there exists but one road that can take you to the moon.

It took me a while to understand what Lauren was trying to say but once i could read her poster, the message struck me like lightning out of a magic wand. In this era of technology and corporations, Graphic Design has become a tool to serve businesses reach out to the masses. This relationship is so strong that often this creative field is referred as ‘commercial art’. Lauren stands as an exception here. Her work is playful and childlike but never gets childish as each artwork is embedded with a deep thought and meaning. She not only succeeds as a wonderful children book’s illustrator but her craft also carries over gracefully to film & concert posters, social communication and beautiful illustrations.

I asked Lauren how she consistently manages to come up with such wonderful ideas and she was kind enough to share her secret. I’m sure this process will be very helpful to students and all aspiring illustrators and graphic designers. The following images reveal her unique process followed by some amazing artworks.

She begins her illustrations by drawing on her chalkboard. This gives her a large canvas to think and pour out her ideas freely. Also, a chalkboard allows her to rectify mistakes easily.

When she gets an idea and composition she is happy with, she redraws the image in the proportions of the assignment. Here the final artwork was a poster so she sets the composition to the proportions of a poster size.

Here is where the real fun begins: She begins to create her illustration by cutting out the shapes of her drawings out of different papers. This is where art and craft are united as one expression.

In addition to paper cuttings, she also uses graphite, oils, and acrylics for my works. She then scans all of the pieces into the computer to assemble her complete illustration where different pieces come together like a jigsaw-puzzle. She also sometimes creates her illustrations directly on the computer with her Wacom Tablet.

Now over to some more amazing work from the artist, followed by her brief biography.

Lauren Rolwing uses various techniques to produce her works: from the most traditional such as collage, graphite, oil paints, acrylic paint, to the more modern computer programs. She received a B.F.A. from the Savannah College of Art and Design, and she has received numerous international awards in the areas of poster design & childrens’ book illustration. She is currently working as a freelance illustrator. To view more of her works, please visit

Put Yourself in Their Shoes is a series of ‘social posters’ by Irish graphic designer Christopher Scott. Inspired by the works of Stefan Sagmeister, Christopher blends elements of nature, man-made objects and certain props to deliver a strong typographical statement. Sometimes thought-provoking and sometimes shocking, these posters aim to stir-up the audience and bring them face-to-face with the harsh realties of life that millions confront everyday. Featured here are 7 of his posters that deal with a variety of topics ranging from fear to life and from the homeless to hope. This series is an inspiration that encourages students to get away from the computer and experience how expressive and powerful graphic design as a medium of communication is.

Christopher Scott is an award winning internationally recognised social awareness poster designer from Northern Ireland. His work has been exhibited all over the world including Louvre Paris, Triennale Milan, Peru, Korea, USA and many many more. Paramount to his designs is for them to have substance that communicate a strong and meaningful message. His sensitivity and passion make him a unique designer which has humanity at the very core of his work. You can find more about ‘Put Yourself in Their Shoes’ here on this facebook page.

Here ye, here ye! What doth thou derive whence thee amalgamate a noble knight, a roaring lion and one nimble soaring foal? Thou appeareth bewildered my lord! Fear not, the pribbling weather-bitten horn-beast isn’t mi revelation, instead thes colosal beast belongeth to one aviation company recognized elsewhere as British Airways. British Airways Balls of Steel ‘Coat of Arms’ tries to bring in some past into the future of the company. Along with the logo featured below, they also launched a 90 second TV spot that showcases flying machines from an era long gone. The commercial celebrates the airline’s 90 year heritage, from its origins in Imperial Airways through BEA and BOAC to the present day, and featuring historic aircraft that have been operated. The campaign coincides with the adoption of the slogan ‘To Fly. To Serve’, which also appears on the BA Coat of Arms.

Forepeople, a graphic design agency based in UK, resurrected an identity known as ‘Coat of Arms’ in shining metal 3D. The crest does not replace the silky ribbony British Airways logo, however, it’s an additional identity element. In September 2011 BA launched its biggest advertising campaign in a decade, the centrepiece of which being a 90-second cinematic commercial celebrating the airline’s 90 year heritage, from its origins in Imperial Airways through BEA and BOAC to the present day, and featuring historic aircraft that have been operated. The campaign coincides with the adoption of the slogan ‘To Fly. To Serve’, which appears on the BA coat of arms.

As a designer I’m a bit confused when I look at this new identity. It’ll certainly look okay when etched in some iron pillar or printed on a bad-ass tee but it certainly makes me wonder about faxes, corporate communication and online promotion. We’ve added a poll below the image for your feedback and to understand what you make of this ‘Coat of Arms’. For now enjoy the promotional campaigns with some fish & chips: to fry, to serve!

[poll id=”4″]

Human Rights now has an identity! Predrag Stakic, a 32 year old graphic designer from Belgrade, Serbia has been announced as the winner of a competition to find a logo for human rights. His symbol ‘Free As a Man’ was selected through the Human Rights Logo Competition, which began with the purpose of finding an international symbol for human rights. His entry was selected from over 15,000 submissions that were received from more than 190 countries. The logo was unveiled at a ceremony in New York organized by Cinema for Peace. The Human Rights logo will become an open source product, free to be used by everyone, everywhere, without restrictions – for the purpose of promoting Human Rights. The winning logo called ‘Free as a Man’, was chosen for its symbolic power, distinctiveness, clarity and universal applicability. The initiative was established out of conviction that a human rights logo will make a peaceful contribution towards the global spread and implementation of human rights. In order to find this logo, a global creative online competition with cash prizes and open to everyone was launched. The initiative had the support of renowned stakeholders, supporters and partners from all walks of life.

Unveiling of the Logo

Robert De Niro (Actor), Ann Curry (TV Journalist), Michael Elliott (ONE President & CEO), Jimmy Wales (Wikipedia Founder), Guido Westerwelle (German Minister of Foreign Affairs), Angelina Atyam (Human Rights Defender from Uganda), Members of the Bouazizi Family (Revolutionary Tunisian Street Vendor) unveil the new logo.

No single logo can change the world – including this one. But a logo is a symbol that people can rally around — and they can change the world. – Stakic

Other Finalists

You can read the original press release and download the logo here:

If you haven’t been out camping for the past few days you’ll be very much aware of the recent Facebook UI changes that the company has been rolling out. The new ticker that has ticked a lot of people is one of the additions you might have noticed. However, this is merely scratching the surface; in the next few weeks the company will be rolling out significant changes to the interface. The profile page update: ‘Timeline’ as it’s being touted by the company seems to be one of the biggest changes that will change the way Facebook looks and feels.

As a developer I got an opportunity to test drive this new UI. What Timeline does is that it tries to fill your entire profile page with everything significant that has ever happened in your life — right from the moment you were born, to your high school graduation and even the moment you proposed your girl. It goes on even further, all important relations in your life are listed — your sister’s birth, your parents anniversary right to the moment you became a dad (I’m assuming as this event hasn’t occurred in my life yet). The timeline is a vertical line that is punctuated with months and broken into years. As you scroll down — equivalent to going back in time — status updates, photos, pages you’ve liked and videos you’ve been tagged in appear adjacent to the timeline. Personally I quite like the presentation and this might comfort quite a few people who’ve been overwhelmed by the cluttered UI Facebook currently offers. I tried digging down into the timeline and could easily pin point events that happened two years ago by narrowing down to the exact month. These updates are for now part of the developer preview program and certain features may be modified or removed when Facebook finally stars rolling out the updates for the public.

Timeline View

As soon as you switch to your profile, you’re greeted with the timeline view. There is a new feature called ‘cover’ that allows you to showcase an image (849×311 pixels) of your choice. This serves as a backdrop to your profile picture. There is a new widget that allows you to update your status, share a photo and pin a place. Your recent activity and updates appear below. On the right is a new timeline meter which allows you to switch to an older timeline from ‘Now’ and even go back to events such as ‘Born’.

Milestones and Experiences

Facebook has added a new section that allows you to mark important milestones and experiences in your life. These then appear in your timeline and can be visible to your family, friends or the public depending on your privacy settings. You can mark personal events such as engagement, marriage, parenthood, getting a pet, losing a loved one to buying a home, adding a roommate or getting a new bike and also unlucky events such as breaking a bone. What this means is that Facebook will have more information about the users to a level previously unimaginable.

Status Updates

There is a new calendar icon below the Status widget that allows you to select the current or previous date. This allows you to tag dates to your status updates. Also now you can easily pin places to your updates. Facebook has worked closely with Microsoft’s Bing team and this finally allows Facebook to pinpoint your exact location based on your ip address. I was amazed and also shocked to find the names of all the surrounding schools, colleges and even streets in my current location. I managed to go back to a couple of years and still the timeline pulled out important photos and updates from days gone by.

Going Back in Time

As I started scrolling down — equivalent to going back in the timeline — all major events started appearing adjacent to the timeline. My most like status updates, photographs I was tagged in, important announcements and everything that had created a buzz was displayed inside neat information bubbles. Clicking on the timeline itself (the blue vertical line with dots) allows you to insert photographs, messages or events conveniently. So if you’ve bought a new Ducati last Friday, you could easily add a photograph of your bike or make an announcement for the precise moment.

Activity Log

The Activity Log allows you to display your posts, posts by others, comments, questions, groups, notes, events sorted neatly into years and months. This is very useful if you have tons of photos you would like to go back to, if you organize many events or if you just want to learn why your relationship failed so miserably in just a matter of few months. The Activity Log is a dream come true for marketing people, event organizers and stalkers alike.

Photos & Albums

The photo album has been updated as well. However beside the cosmetic changes, timeline integration is missing inside the album. It would’ve been great if you could just browse through albums sorted by year, months or days. One good thing now is that you can change the privacy of the albums by simply clicking on the globe or the gear icon below the image and choosing the appropriate privacy for your album.

Friends & Likes

Friends and your likes now appear inside the timeline itself. Also, comments by your friends in your timeline are shown inside the friends widget. The like widget displays your recent likes and also allows you to remove or edit your liked pages.

Timeline in Action

Edenspiekermann have created a strong visual language for the chocolate brand TCHO that hails from San Francisco. Every aspect of the branding has a uniform design approach, from online and offline design to logo, colour scheme and typography right through to packaging. The corporate design incorporates all printed products – from press kits to flyers – as well as advertisements, posters, conference presentations and the website with its integrated online shop.

The challenge for Edenspiekermann was to give the chocolate gourmet’s experience a face. They did so by breaking down the brand into smaller aspects and then giving every aspect has a uniform design approach, from on- and offline design to logo, colour scheme and typography right through to packaging. The corporate design incorporates all printed products – from press kits to flyers – as well as advertisements, posters, conference presentations and the website with its integrated online shop.

The visual identity for the brand is clear and strong and conveys the message of modern day high quality chocolate that TCHO wishes to convey. The packaging design won the Academy of Chocolate Gold Award in February 2009 and a Gold European Design Award in May 2009.

In 2011, TCHO decided to launch milk chocolates to cater to a wider chocolate-loving audience. The challenge this time was to attract the attention of milk chocolate lovers without abandoning TCHO’s dark chocolate roots. Edenspiekermann did so by relying on the design values practiced for four years and injecting them with a bold visual direction. So two new sub-brands, SeriousMilk and PureNotes were introduced with a packaging that showcased their heritage yet helped these products to stand on their own.


The design for SeriousMilk is hypnotic, drawing one into the rolling optics that say creamy, smooth, you have to try me, I’m different. The illusion appears to move and flow because of the precise mathematically based composition. These “tessellations” fill the visual plane leaving the viewer wanting to move around the box edges looking for more.


The design for PureNotes takes the guilloche patterns of the original dark bars and enlarges and simplifies them to create a stronger line look and helps to clarify the dark chocolate flavor story along with a stronger connection to the newly introduced milk line.

TCHO’s Website Design

Zero is a stop motion animation by Australian husband and wife filmmaking duo, Christopher and Christine Kezelos. This dark fairytale takes place in a world where the inhabitants are born into a numerical class system. Faced with constant prejudice and persecution an oppressed zero walks a lonely path until a chance encounter changes his life forever: he meets a female zero. Together they prove that through determination, courage, and love, nothing can be truly something.

Zero employs innocently cute characterization that directly contrasts the dark themes of racism and intolerance that underlies the story. It shows how love and the ability to see beauty in the darkest of places allows us to transcend our loneliness and despair and find an authentic connection to our world.

Narrated by international voice over veteran Nicholas McKay, the crew comprised of multi-award winning filmmakers including director Christopher Kezelos and producer Christine Kezelos, director of photography Matthew Horrex and composer Kyls Burtland.

Zero has screened at major international film festivals and has won the award for ‘Best Animation’ from LA Shorts Fest and the Rhode Island International Film Festival, been the recipient of two awards from the Australian Cinematographers Society and received ‘Best Achievement in Sound‘ from the Flickerfest International Film Festival. It has also recently been nominated for an AFI Award in the ‘Best Short Animation’ category.

Film Stills

Behind the Scenes

Concept Sketches

Making Prototypes

Making Molds

Building Wire Armatures

Casting The Puppets

Fabrication: Strings, Hair & Accessories

Turning Heads

Awards & Nominations

  • 2010 LA Shorts Fest: Best Animation
  • 2010 Rhode Island International Film Festival: First Place – Best Animation
  • 2010 ATOM Awards: Best Short Animation
  • 2010 Grand OFF – World Independent Film Awards: Best Animation
  • 2010 Naples International Film Festival: Best Short Film
  • 2010 Bondi Short Film Festival: Best Script
  • 2010 Bondi Short Film Festival: Best Design
  • 2011 Shorts Film Festival: Best FX
  • 2010 Flickerfest International Film Festival: Best Achievement in Sound
  • 2010 Australian Cinematographers Society: Golden Tripod – Experimental & Specialised (National)
  • 2009 Australian Cinematographers Society: Gold Award – Experimental & Specialised (NSW/ACT)
  • 2010 AFI Awards: Nominated for Best Short Animation
  • 2010 Inside Film Awards: Nominated for Best Short Animation
  • 2010 APRA Screen Music Awards: Nominated for Best Music in a Short Film

Visit the website at

[dropcap]T[/dropcap]his project explores the invisible terrain of WiFi networks in urban spaces by light painting signal strength in long-exposure photographs. A four-metre tall measuring rod with 80 points of light reveals cross-sections through WiFi networks using a photographic technique called light-painting.

In order to study the spatial and material qualities of wireless networks, the Immaterials team built a WiFi measuring rod that visualises WiFi signal strength as bars of lights. When moved through space the rod displays changes in the WiFi signal. Long-exposure photographs of the moving rod reveal cross sections of a network’s signal strength.

The WiFi measuring rod is a 4-meter tall probe containing 80 lights that respond to the Received Signal Strength (RSSI) of a particular WiFi network. When they walked through architectural, urban spaces with this probe, while taking long-exposure photographs, they could visualise the cross-sections, or strata, of WiFi signal strength, situated within photographic urban scenes. The cross-sections are an abstraction of WiFi signal strength, a line graph of RSSI across physical space. Although it can be used to determine actual signal strength at a given point, it is much more interesting as a way of seeing the overall pattern, the relative peaks and the troughs situated in the surrounding physical space.

The measuring rod is inspired by the poles land surveyors use to map and describe the physical landscape. Similarly, this equipment allowed the team to reveal and represent topographies of wireless networks. The measuring rod uses a typical mobile WiFi antenna to measure reception, and draw out 4 metre tall graphs of light.

After a week of walking through urban spaces holding and photographing this instrument, they got a much better sense of the qualities of WiFi in urban spaces, its random crackles, bright and dim spots, its reaction to the massing of buildings, and its broad reach through open areas. The resulting images show some of these qualities, and establishes light painting as a brilliant medium for situating visualisations and data into physical world locations and situations.

The light paintings show how WiFi networks are highly local, informal and fragmented, but also illustrate how these networks make up a highly evolved, yet largely inaccessible urban infrastructure that is mainly created by its users. The visualisations demonstrate how WiFi is a part of the urban landscape, and how networks are both shaped by the environment and influence how urban spaces can be used.

‘Immaterials: Light painting WiFi’ points towards potentials for materializing and contextualizing invisible technologies through light painting and visualisations. Hopefully, the film situates the networked city within the everyday environments in which it take place. The light paintings illustrate how the networked city can be both ubiquitous, messy, informal and shows how the invisible landscape of networks is another layer of the dense and complex urban contexts we are already aware of.


‘Immaterials: light painting WiFi’ is created by Timo ArnallJørn Knutsenand Einar Sneve Martinussen. The film joins together TouchYOUrban and Einar’s PhD project on design, technology and city life. Einar is also writes about this work in a chapter for a forthcoming book titled ‘Design Innovation for the Built Environment – Research by Design and the Renovation of Practice’ edited my Michael U. Michael U. Hensel.



There are few pieces that represent the typographic and design spirit that illuminated that moment of history,
and certainly none on a scale as ambitious. Milton Glaser



Gastrotypographicalassemblage is a 35 feet (11 m) wide by 8.5 feet (2.6 m) tall work of art designed by Lou Dorfsman to decorate the cafeteria in Eero Saarinen’s CBS Building on 52nd Street and Sixth Avenue, New York City, New York, USA. With custom type created by Herb Lubalin and Tom Carnase, the installation contains almost 1500 individual characters.

As the senior vice president and creative director for marketing communications and design for the Columbia Broadcasting System, Dorfsman was responsible for all aspects of the building’s graphics, designating the type, design and spacing for wall clocks, elevator buttons, and elevator inspection stickers. He designed what he called Gastrotypographicalassemblage for the building’s cafeteria, using varied typefaces to list all of the foods offered to patrons in hand-milled wood type. The completed work was based on ideas conceived in the mid-1960s. The project was ultimately completed in 1966 with assistance from graphic designer Herb Lubalin, and Tom Carnase, who crafted the typography from Dorfsman’s original design. Dorfsman considered this work to be “his magnum opus, his gift to the world”.

Gastrotypographicalassemblage was discarded in the early 1990s by CBS, but the work’s nine panels were retrieved by designer Nick Fasciano. It was in an advanced state of disrepair, aggravated by improper storage. The piece was acquired by the Atlanta-based Center for Design Study, which has undertaken an effort to raise the funds needed to support the restoration of the work of art. The group’s goal is to restore Gastrotypographicalassemblage and to use it in a permanent traveling exhibition focusing on historical American design, and using the piece as an example of the value of intelligently applied design.

Lou Dorfsman in 1982, at the “Gastrotypographicalassemblage” he created for the CBS cafeteria.

File Photograph of Lou Dorfman (extreme-right) with Ed Katz and Bob Denverand Marlene Dietrich

Louis “Lou” Dorfsman (1918 – October 22, 2008) was a graphic designer who oversaw almost every aspect of the advertising and corporate identity for the Columbia Broadcasting System (CBS) in his forty years with the network.

Lou Dorfsman joined CBS during 1946 after leaving the U.S. army. Dorfsman was attracted to CBS because of its “high graphic standards.” For 41 years, he would work within CBS, shaping every aspect of its design and advertising. He became the Art Director of CBS Radio during 1951, five short years after joining CBS, and graduated to Creative Director of the CBS Television Network during 1960. Dorfsman was appointed Director of Design for CBS, Inc. during 1964, and he became Vice President and Creative Director of the CBS Broadcast group during 1968. Alongside William S. Paley and Frank Stanton, he shaped every aspect of their advertising and design, from their award-winning advertisements to the look of the convention floor to the appearance of Walter Cronkite and the CBS Newsroom. Dorfsman played an integral role in the Golden Age of Broadcast Television. During 1978, Dorfsman became Senior Vice President and Creative Director for Marketing Communications and Design for the CBS Broadcast Group. Milton Glaser called him simply “the best corporate designer in the world,” a testament to the beauty and strength of his ideas, which still resonate with designers of all ages.

In 1978, Dorfsman was recognized as a medalist by the AIGA, “awarded to individuals in recognition of their exceptional achievements, services or other contributions to the field of design and visual communication”.

The Art Director’s Club, of which Dorfsman was a past president, honored him through the years with 13 Gold Medals and 23 awards of Distinctive Merit for outstanding work in print and television advertising, packaging, film titling, book design and direct mail. He won two Clios and five 50 Ads of the Year. During 1978, The Art Director’s Club inducted Lou into the Art Directors Hall of Fame , and the AIGA awarded him with its annual AIGA Medal during the same year. He was the recipient in 1984 and 1989 of an honorary Doctorate of Fine Arts from the New School of Social Research and the Long Island University, respectively.

The 1988 book Dorfsman & CBS by Dick Hess and Marion Muller covered his more than 40 years with the network.


  1. Kemistry Gallery /
  2. AIGA /
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  4. The Center for Design Study /